Components of Muhurta or Muhurat in Vedic Astrology
Muhurta is an important branch of Astrology. The technique of muhurta selection is simply creating a positive link between the cosmic energies of the moment (electional chart) to the birth chart. The energies operating at the time of action should positively influence the birth chart. When astral energies are in tune with the birth chart, the result of the action will be favourable. Otherwise, it is like going against the natural flow.
The basic tool for determining muhurta is panchanga along with Moon sign and ascendant. Moon plays a very big role in muhurta. Moon rules over the mind and psychological patterns. However, other planets also influence the election chart. Each planet has a greater say in different elections, like Jupiter should be given more prominence in educational muhurtas, mercury in intelligence, mars in aggressive works etc.
Before knowing about the components of muhurta, I would suggest you to read What is muhurta and how it is useful here.
(Also Read: Simple way of calculating Muhurat)
Components of Muhurta
I. Tithi or Lunar Day
Tithi is an angle created by the movement of the Sun and the Moon. Tithi represents lunar energy, which is nothing but mental energy.
A lunar month starts when Sun and Moon are together at the same degree, which is called New Moon or Amavasya. The difference between the longitudes of the Moon and the Sun start increasing. As one circle of zodiac consists of 360°, Moon can move 360° apart from the Sun. As Moon moves away from Sun at a multiple of 12° a new tithi is formed.
So, Tithi=(longitude of Moon – longitude of Sun) / 12
The quotient represents the number of tithis elapsed. Each tithi is equal to 0.9483 of a day so that a lunar month is about 29.53 days. The time from one new Moon to another new moon is called a lunar month.
There are 30 tithis in a month, of which fifteen are bright half (Shukla paksha), when the Moon moves away from the Sun and fifteen are dark half (krishna paksha), when the Moon moves towards the Sun.
Lords of the Tithis
|Saturn||Saptami||Purnima (Full Moon)|
|Rahu||Ashtami||Amavasya (New Moon)|
Deities of the Tithis
Find below the table with various tithis with their deities. Each tithi is suitable for different kinds of activities.
|Tithi Number||Tithi Name||Nature||Deity||Purpose|
|1st||Pratipada||Vriddhi Prada – Increase||Agni (Fire)||Auspicious & religious ceremonies|
|2nd||Dwitiya||Mangala Prada – Auspicious Happenings||Brahma||Activities involve permanent nature like laying the foundation for building|
|3rd||Tritiya||Bala Prada – Power Giving||Goddess Gauri||cutting one’s hair, nails|
|4th||Chaturthi||Khala||Lord Ganesha (Fulfillment)||Removal of obstacles, destruction of enemies and acts of combat|
|5th||Panchami||Lakshmi Prada – Wealth Giving||Naga (Serpents)||Administering medicine, removing poisons and performing surgery|
|6th||Shashti||Yasha Prada – Fame Giving||Lord Kartikeya (Valour)||Coronation, festivities, and enjoyments|
|7th||Saptami||Mitra – Friendly||Lord Sun||All activities of movable nature like a journey|
|8th||Ashtami||Dwandwa – Conflict giving||Lord Rudra (Destruction)||Building one’s defenses, taking up arms|
|9th||Navami||Ugra – Aggressive||Goddess Durga (Power)||Acts of destruction, killing enemies etc.|
|10th||Dashami||Soumya – Sober||Lord Dharmaraja (God of Death)||Religious functions, spiritual activities, all pious activities|
|11th||Ekadashi||Ananda Prada – Enjoyments||Lord Vishwadeva||Devotional activities, remembrance of lord, fasting|
|12th||Dwadashi||Yasha Prada – Fame & Good Qualities||Lord Vishnu/Aditya||Religious ceremonies, the lighting of a sacred fire, the performance of one’s duties|
|13th||Trayodashi||Jaya Prada – Victory||Lord Kamadeva (God of desire)||Forming friendships, sensual pleasures, desire fulfilling activities|
|14th||Chaturdashi||Ugra – Aggressive||Goddess Kali (Destruction)||Administering poison, calling of spirits|
|15th||Purnima||Soumya – Sober||Moon||Fire sacrifice, joyous activities|
|30th||Amavasya||Aggressive||Pitr (Ancestors)||Performance of austerities, propitiation of spirit|
(Read here: Detailed application of Tithi in Muhurta)
Nakshatras are huge electromagnetic bodies much larger than the Sun. If Sun represents soul then stars can be represented as a super soul. It is stated in Sanskrit that, “Na Ksharathi Na Gacchathiti Nakshatram”, which means nakshatra is a body which does not move. It is the planets which move over the stars.
If we divide the zodiac into 27 equal parts, then each division or arc will be 13° 20’ (or 800’)and is called as Nakshatra, which is often termed as a lunar mansion. When the Moon is transiting in a particular division of 13°20’, it is called as the Nakshatra of that moment. The nakshatras get associated with twelve signs of the zodiac from Aries to Pisces.
When we say Nakshatra, it is not always one big body. It is a group of stars forming a particular pattern/form and ancient rishis have named them accordingly. For example, Shatabhisha nakshatra is a group 100 stars, which is collectively called as Shatabhisha. (Read here to know about other nakshatras). So, the feature, traits, and energies of all the nakshatras are different. These nakshatras emit energies which impact human psyche in different ways. When Moon transit over different nakshatras zone, it behaves differently.
The 27 Nakshatra are:
Abhijit Nakshatra – Apart from regular 27 nakshatras, one more nakshatra is used especially in Muhurta. That is Abhijit Nakshatra. It is the last quarter of Uttarashada and first 4 ghatis of Shravana (1/15 portion). So, from 6° 40’ to 10° 53’ 20” of Capricorn (Makara) is the measure of Abhijit Nakshatra.
III. Vaara or Day
In Indian astronomy, the day is considered to be from one sunrise to the next sunrise. Each day is dedicated to a planet and weekday is named in accordance with planetary considerations. On a day when a planet gets the lordship, that planet influences predominantly. So, the weekdays are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday and lords are Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn respectively. Out of these, Tuesday and Saturday are generally considered malefic and avoided in auspicious events.
Classification of Vaara
Sunday – Dhruva-Sthira (Fixed & Constant)
Monday – Chara (Movable)
Tuesday – Ugra-Kroora (Aggressive & Cruel)
Wednesday – Mishra (Mixed)
Thursday – Kshipra-Laghu (Dynamic & Light)
Friday – Mridu-Maitra (Gentle & Friendly)
Saturday – Tikshna-Daruna (Ferocious & Bitter)
The days are suitable for the acts for which the nakshatras of the same category are used. Ex. Sunday is suitable for the acts which are fixed in nature like fixed nakshatras.
Yoga is the result of the combined motion of the Sun and the Moon. It is the period during which the combined motion in longitude of the Sun and the Moon amounts to 13° 20’.
Mathematical equation according to Surya Siddhanta is,
Yoga = (Sun’s Longitude + Moon’s Longitude) / 13° 20’
This will give you the Yoga number. There are 27 Yogas in total and their names are suggestive of their nature. The names of Yoga are:
Among these, the malefic yogas are: 1. Vishkumbha 6. Atiganda 9. Shoola 10. Ganda 13. Vyaghata 15. Vajra 17. Vyatipata 19. Parigha and 27. Vaidhriti. These yogas should be avoided in auspicious elections.
Out of these malefic yogas also, there are certain times which are specifically bad and should be avoided in the elections. The malefic portion of yogas are given below:
|Yoga||Malefic Part in Ghatis||Malefic Part in Hours|
|Vishakumbha||First 3 ghatis||First 1 hour 12 minutes|
|Atiganda||First 6 ghatis||First 2 hour 24 minutes|
|Shoola||First 5 ghatis||First 2 hours|
|Ganda||First 6 ghatis||First 2 hour 24 minutes|
|Vyaghat||First 9 ghatis||First 3 hours 36 minutes|
|Vajra||First 3 ghatis||First 1 hour 12 minutes|
|Vyatipata||Full 60 ghatis||Full 24 hours|
|Parigha||First 30 ghatis||First 12 hours|
|Vaidhriti||Full 60 ghatis||Full 24 hours|
Karana is one half of a tithi, which is half a lunar day. Each karana is decided by the time taken by the Moon to gain over the Sun by a margin of 6° (as against 12° in the case of tithi). The mathematical calculation is:
Karana = (Longitude of the Moon – Longitude of Sun) / 6°
Quotient + 1 will give the karana running at the time.
There are eleven karanas out of which seven repeats eight times during a month and four are non-recurring. The eleven karanas are:
1. Bava 2. Balava 3. Kaulava 4. Taitila 5. Gara 6. Vanija 7. Vishti 8. Shakuni 9. Chatushpada 10. Naga 11. Kintughna
First seven karanas repeat eight times, so comes 56 (7*8) times in a month and last four comes only four times during a month.
The last four karanas (Shakuni, Chatushpada, Naga, and Kintughna) are considered inauspicious.
|Shukla Paksha (Bright Half)||Krishna Paksha (Dark Half)|
|Tithi||1st Half of Tithi||2nd Half of Tithi||Tithi||1st Half of Tithi||2nd Half of Tithi|
VI. Ascendant or Lagna
Ascendant is a foundation of any chart. Just like how ascendant is very important in the birth chart, it is equally important in the muhurta chart. It is advisable to always strengthen the ascendant and its lord. It is stated in classical texts that a strong ascendant can remove many doshas or malefic defects present in the muhurta horoscope. Selection of proper ascendant and planets will differ in the nature of the activity to be performed.
Important factors in selecting ascendant and planets position
Kendra (1,4,7,10) and Trikona (1,5,9) houses should be occupied by benefic planets and 3,6 and 11th houses are to be occupied by malefics.
Some events require only fixed ascendants and other events require movable ascendants. Choose fixed signs (2,5,8,11) for activities of fixed nature like construction agriculture, starting a company, marriage etc. Similarly, choose movable signs (1,4,7,10) for activities of movable in nature like journey.
In Aries, Taurus, Virgo, and Sagittarius, the first three degrees should be avoided, as it is ruled by bhujanga (serpent). In Gemini, Libra, Aquarius, and Leo, the middle three degrees (13° 30’ to 16° 30’) should be avoided as it is ruled by Gridhra. In Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, and Capricorn, the last three degrees should be avoided as it is ruled by Rahu.
Adhika Masa and Kshaya Masa
Adhika masa is a lunar month during which there is no solar ingress (Surya Sankramana) between two new moon days. It will happen once in three years. Kshaya masa happens when there are two solar ingresses (sankrantis) between two new moons.
Kshaya and Adhika masas are generally avoided in the elections like construction activities, entering a house, annaprashan (first feeding), journey etc. However, some events like a holy bath, samskaras related to pregnancy, shraddha and other routine matters can be performed.