Application of Tithi in Muhurta or Muhurat as per Vedic Astrology
Tithi, nothing but a lunar day, is a name given to various longitudinal angles between the Moon and the Sun. Tithi in Vedic Astrology represents the lunar energy, which is nothing but mental energy.
The time from one new Moon to another new moon is called a lunar month. A lunar month starts when the Sun and Moon are together at the same degree or with a difference of 0°. The difference between the longitudes of the Moon and the Sun start increasing. The 1st tithi starts when the Moon starts moving ahead of the Sun. As one circle of zodiac consists of 360°, Moon can move 360° away from the Sun. As Moon moves away from the Sun at a multiple of 12° a new tithi is formed.
Mathematical Calculation of finding the Tithi
Tithi for a particular day is calculated by deducting the longitudes of the Sun from that of the Moon. If the difference is less than 180°, it is the Shukla Paksha or bright half. If the difference is more than 180°, it is the Krishna Paksha or dark half. Divide the balance by 12°
The equation will be, Tithi = (Longitude of Moon – Longitude of Sun) / 12
The quotient represents the number of tithis elapsed and the remainder shows the part of the next tithi which is elapsed.
We will find out the tithi running on 21-02-2019 at 10 AM.
Longitude of the Sun – 11³ 08° 08’ 42” = 308° 08’ 42”
Longitude of the Moon – 05³ 29° 47’01” = 149° 47’ 01”
As 149° is less than 308°, add 360 to Moon’s longitude
So, (509° 47’ 01” – 308° 08’ 42”) / 12
= 201° 38’ 19” / 12
= 16 (9° 38’) / 12
Hence, 16th tithi is already elapsed and 17th tithi is running for the day, which is Dwitiya in Krishna Paksha or dark half.
Each tithi is equal to 0.9483 of a day so that a lunar month is about 29.53 days and not 30 days. There are 30 tithis in a month, of which fifteen are bright half (shukla paksha), when the Moon moves away from the Sun and fifteen are dark half (krishna paksha), when the Moon moves towards the Sun.
The following table shows the tithis and the difference of the longitudes of the Moon and the Sun for easy reference.
|Tithi No.||Tithi (Bright Half)||Long of (Moon – Sun)||Tithi No.||Tithi (Dark Half)||Long of (Moon – Sun)|
|1||Pratipada||0° – 12°||1||Pratipada||180° – 192°|
|2||Dwitiya||12° – 24°||2||Dwitiya||192° – 204°|
|3||Tritiya||24° – 36°||3||Tritiya||204° – 216°|
|4||Chaturthi||36° – 48°||4||Chaturthi||216° – 228°|
|5||Panchami||48° – 60°||5||Panchami||228° – 240°|
|6||Shashti||60° – 72°||6||Shashti||240° – 252°|
|7||Saptami||72° – 84°||7||Saptami||252° – 264°|
|8||Ashtami||84° – 96°||8||Ashtami||264° – 276°|
|9||Navami||96° – 108°||9||Navami||276° – 288°|
|10||Dashami||108° – 120°||10||Dashami||288° – 300°|
|11||Ekadashi||120° – 132°||11||Ekadashi||300° – 312°|
|12||Dwadashi||132° – 144°||12||Dwadashi||312° – 324°|
|13||Trayodashi||144° – 156°||13||Trayodashi||324° – 336°|
|14||Chaturdashi||156° – 168°||14||Chaturdashi||336° – 348°|
|15||Purnima (Full Moon)||168° – 180°||30||Amavasya (New Moon)||348° – 360°|
Tithis are dependent on the net difference of motion of the Moon and the Sun. The speed of the Moon varies from time to time. Sometimes it moves faster at the rate of about 15° a day and sometimes it moves slower at the rate of 12° in 24 hrs. This resultant motion of the Moon causes sometimes losing of a tithi (tithi kshaya) or gaining (tithi vriddhi) at times. Because tithi running at the time of the sunrise has to be taken as the tithi of the day.
Tithi Kshaya – A tithi which starts after the sunrise for the day and ends before next sunrise is said to be missed for that fortnight. It is called a loss of tithi or tithi kshaya.
Tithi Vriddhi – A tithi which starts before sunrise and ends after the next sunrise is called tithi vriddhi. Here this tithi will rule for two days in that fortnight. Generally, it is to be avoided in all auspicious muhurtas.
Classification of Tithis
For muhurta purposes, tithis are classified into five groups.
- Nanda (Happiness) – Fire – 1st (Pratipada), 6th (Shashti) and 11th tithis (Ekadashi)
- Bhadra (Auspicious) – Earth – 2nd (Dwitiya), 7th (Saptami) and 12th (Dwadashi)
- Jaya (Vicotry) – Akasha – 3rd (Tritiya), 8th (Ashtami) and 13th (Trayodashi)
- Rikta (Emptiness) – Water – 4th (Chaturthi), 9th (Navami) and 14th (Chaturdashi)
- Poorna (Complete) – Vayu – 5th (Panchami), 10th (Dashami) and 15th/30th (Purnima/Amavasya)
Generally, Rikta tithis as considered inauspicious times. And also Krishna Ashtami (8th tithi of dark half), Chaturdasi, Purnima, Amavasya and tithi prevailing on Sankranti day are called ‘Parva Tithis’ and should be avoided in auspicious events.
Lords of the Tithis
|Saturn||Saptami||Purnima (Full Moon)|
|Rahu||Ashtami||Amavasya (New Moon)|
Nature and Deities of the Tithis
Find below the table with various tithis with their deities. Each tithi is suitable for different kinds of activities.
|Tithi Number||Tithi Name||Nature||Deity||Purpose|
|1st||Pratipada||Vriddhi Prada – Increase||Agni (Fire)||Auspicious & religious ceremonies|
|2nd||Dwitiya||Mangala Prada – Auspicious Happenings||Brahma||Activities involve permanent nature like laying the foundation for building|
|3rd||Tritiya||Bala Prada – Power Giving||Goddess Gauri||cutting one’s hair, nails|
|4th||Chaturthi||Khala||Lord Ganesha (Fulfillment)||Removal of obstacles, destruction of enemies and acts of combat|
|5th||Panchami||Lakshmi Prada – Wealth Giving||Naga (Serpents)||Administering medicine, removing poisons and performing surgery|
|6th||Shashti||Yasha Prada – Fame Giving||Lord Kartikeya (Valour)||Coronation, festivities, and enjoyments|
|7th||Saptami||Mitra – Friendly||Lord Sun||All activities of movable nature like a journey|
|8th||Ashtami||Dwandwa – Conflict giving||Lord Rudra (Destruction)||Building one’s defenses, taking up arms|
|9th||Navami||Ugra – Aggressive||Goddess Durga (Power)||Acts of destruction, killing enemies etc.|
|10th||Dashami||Soumya – Sober||Lord Dharmaraja (God of Death)||Religious functions, spiritual activities, all pious activities|
|11th||Ekadashi||Ananda Prada – Enjoyments||Lord Vishwadeva||Devotional activities, remembrance of lord, fasting|
|12th||Dwadashi||Yasha Prada – Fame & Good Qualities||Lord Vishnu/Aditya||Religious ceremonies, the lighting of a sacred fire, performance of one’s duties|
|13th||Trayodashi||Jaya Prada – Victory||Lord Kamadeva (God of desire)||Forming friendships, sensual pleasures, desire fulfilling activities|
|14th||Chaturdashi||Ugra – Aggressive||Goddess Kali (Destruction)||Administering poison, calling of spirits|
|15th||Purnima||Soumya – Sober||Moon||Fire sacrifice, joyous activities|
|30th||Amavasya||Aggressive||Pitr (Ancestors)||Performance of austerities, propitiation of spirit|
Auspicious and Inauspicious Yogas
When certain tithis and vara (day) come together, auspicious or inauspicious yoga is formed.
Siddha Yoga – Nanda tithis (1st, 6th and 11th) along with Friday; Bhadra tithis (2nd, 7th & 12th) with Wednesday; Jaya tithis (3rd, 8th & 13th) with Tuesday; Rikta tithis (4th, 9th & 14th) with Saturday and Purna tithis (5th, 10th,15th & 30th) with Thursday. If these tithis and days (vara) found together, then Siddha Yoga is formed, which is very auspicious.
Mrityu Yoga – Nanda tithis (1st, 6th and 11th) along with Sunday or Tuesday; Bhadra tithis (2nd, 7th & 12th) with Friday or Monday; Jaya tithis (3rd, 8th & 13th) with Wednesday; Rikta tithis (4th, 9th & 14th) with Thursday and Purna tithis (5th, 10th,15th & 30th) with Saturday. If these tithis and days (vara) found together, then Mrityu Yoga or Mrita Yoga is formed, which is very inauspicious and should be avoided for auspicious events especially related to the journey.
Dagdha Yoga – Dwadashi (12th) tithi with Sunday; Ekadashi (11th) tithi with Monday; Panchami (5th) with Tuesday; Tritiya (3rd) with Wednesday; Shashti (6th) with Thursday; Ashtami (8th) with Friday and Navami (9th) with Saturday are malefic combinations and called Dagdha yoga. It is to be avoided in the auspicious election.
Visha Yoga – Sunday with Chaturthi (4th); Monday with Shashti (6th); Tuesday with Saptami (7th); Wednesday with Dwitiya (2nd); Thursday with Ashtami (8th); Friday with Navami (9th) and Saturday with Saptami (7th) are malefic combination and forms Visha (poison) yoga. It is also should be avoided in auspicious elections. However, Wednesday with Dwitiya is also forms Siddha yoga, which is a benefic yoga. So, as per Muhurta Chintamani, Siddha yoga has more weightage and can be considered.
Kakracha Yoga – Sunday with Dwadashi (12th); Monday with Ekadashi (11th); Tuesday with Dashami (10th); Wednesday with Navami (9th); Thursday with Ashtami (8th); Friday with Saptami (7th) and Saturday with Shashti (6th) forms Kakracha yoga, a malefic yoga which should be avoided in auspicious elections.
Samvartaka Yoga – Pratipada (1st) with Wednesday and Saptami (7th) with Sunday forms Samvartaka yoga, which is again a malefic yoga and should be avoided.
Hutashana Yoga – Sunday with Dwadashi (12th); Monday with Shashti (6th); Tuesday with Saptami (7th); Wednesday with Ashtami (8th); Thursday with Navami (9th); Friday with Dashami (10th) and Saturday with Ekadashi (11th) are malefic combinations and called Hutashana Yoga.
Note- Sunday with Dwadashi (12th) tithi forms Dagdha, Kakracha and Hutashana Yoga; Monday with Shashti (6th) tithi forms Visha and Hutashana yoga; Tuesday with Saptami (7th) tithi forms Visha and Hutashana yoga; Wednesday with Ashtami (8th) tithi forms Mrityu and Hutashana yoga; Thursday with Navami (9th) tithi forms Mrityu and Hutashana yoga; Thursday with Ashtami (8th) forms Visha and Kakracha yoga.
Combination of Tithi and Day
|Siddha Yoga||x||x||Jaya (3,8,13)||Bhadra (2,7,12)||Purna (5,10,15,30)||Nanda (1,6,11)||Rikta (4,9,14)|
|Mrityu Yoga||Nanda (1,6,11)||Bhadra (2,7,12)||Nanda (1,6,11)||Jaya (3,8,13)||Rikta (4,9,14)||Bhadra (2,7,12)||Purna (5,10,15,30)|
Yugadi Tithis – The tithis prevailing at the time of starting of four yugas (Satya, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali) are called as Yugadi tithis. They are: starting of Satya yuga – Kartika Shukla Navami (9); starting of Treta yuga – Vaishakha Shukla Tritiya (3); beginning of Dwapara yuga – Magha Krishna Amavasya and beginning of Kaliyuga – Bhadrapada Krishna Trayodashi (13). All these tithis may be avoided especially in starting education, marriage, construction of the house, upanayana and journey.